I would like to use 4 different prints.. how much yardage of each fabric will i need if the width of yardage is 42 in. But I don't know how many yards of material to buy. A standard queen size quilt that is 88 inches wide and 96 inches long takes about 8 yards of fabric for the front of the quilt and another 8 yards of fabric for the back of the quilt, depending on the pattern and fabric you choose. Measure the total finished length of your quilt top (with allowance), and divide it by the width of the fabric. Will it drop down the sides of the bed? Measure the width of your finished quilt top, and add 6 inches for the allowance. This is my second quilt.. my first one was a rag throw made out of flannel for my baby and I to cuddle with our for him/her to lay on. Answer + 8. A common finished size for a queen-size comforter is 84 by 94 inches. ... is usually 20" x 26", a queen size is usually 20" x 30" and a king size is 20" x 36".. you would need 9 1/4 yards of standard width fabric but only 3 yards of extra . The calculator provides: The total length of the binding (the perimeter of the quilt). Each of the top and underside requires a minimum of 6 yards of fabric. Choose a backing layout that best suits your quilt. My Master Size Guide says that a queen quilt with a 12" drop (the quilt hangs over the bed on the sides and at the foot) is 84" x 92." February 17, 2018 at 12:47 pm Simply buy 2 3/4 yards of 118-inch fabric. Rag Quilt Instructions: Cut your fabrics into enough squares to make whatever size quilt you desire. Finished size of each square will be about 1.5 inches less than the beginning size. Including a 12" drop on the sides and foot brings the queen sized quilt to 84" x 92." I am wanting to make a queen size rag quilt with 8 or 10 in squares (which ever is easiest to calculate). Pillows can vary in size, too. What size quilt are you making? Her writing has appeared on various online sites and in Midwest newspapers. I didn't calculate the window fabric but you are probably estimating too much there too. ... 3 yards for Backing with 1 horiz. The total yardage needed for a queen size quilt varies with the pattern and fabric used. A yard of fabric is Take the square root of that answer and add two inches. See the method used in the twin sized quilt – Use 3 sets of 35 strips to make 3 segments measuring 87.5″ x 32.5″ and then sew together side by side. Material details for queen size rag quilt made with 10" squares. *The mathematical formula for this is: Multiply the number of inches around the quilt (the perimeter) by the width of your bias binding strips. . Choose your fabric. To make a twin or full-size bento box quilt, you need approximately 5 1/4 yards of backing. I know that I want it to be big enough for our queen sized bed, So I'm doing 9 8in. That means you need 256/4=66 strips. Quilt Size Chart . Center Square First Light Second Light Third Light First Dark Second Dark Third Dark First Border Second Border B atting Backing fabric. Note: large quilts might require 3 lengths. Say, you want to make a queen sized hexagon quilt. A standard size pillowcase is usually 20" x 26", a queen size is usually 20" x 30" and a king size is 20" x 36". To help with this process, I have created a quick quilt size chart for easy reference. If using 45" or 60" wide fabric, all covers will require even side sections added to each side of your fabric. To first determine how much backing fabric is required you must know what size of quilt you are making- for example a quilt for a twin size mattress or a queen size mattress. . Just remember that these finished quilt sizes are approximate and can vary 4” – 8”. For queen-size quilts measuring approximately 96 inches by 96 inches, the fabrics are about the same for a full-size quilt. Cut an equal amount of batting squares 2 inches smaller than the fabric squares. For example, if your finished quilt width with allowance is 126 inches, you need 3 1/2 yards of fabric to go across it. 330" + 18 =348". Custom Bedspreads - 54" Fabric (per side) QUILTED BEDSPREADS . I would like to use 4 different prints.. how much yardage of each fabric will i need if the width of yardage is 42 in. From there, take your quilt size with the desired quilting amount and use the chart to see how much thread, in yards, will be needed. Center one batting square inside two fabric squares and secure with pins. Video of the Day Volume 0% The amount of yardage for each border is rounded up to the nearest 1/8 of a yard. It should be preshrunk if the quilt top fabrics were. Quilt Size Chart. Using 90in-wide fabric If you buy backing fabric that’s 90in wide then you won’t need any joins to make a 59in x 80in quilt, as the width of the backing fabric is enough for the length of the quilt … She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in communications from Almeda University. For example, if your finished quilt width with allowance … (105) 40″ strips, or (210) 20″ strips – Standard Queen size is 86 x 93. Wonderful Tutorial - makes me want to do a CW. If you've got more fat quarters than you need for the quilt top you want to make, you can work extras into the backing or binding. Notice that Queen and Double (Full) size need the same number of fat quarters. Enter the results into an online quilt calculator to estimate how many yards of fabric will be needed for each shape based on the fabric width. for quilts over 72" wide (based on 45" wide fabric) Note: Take the LENGTH of your quilt and triple it + 27 inches (if your tripled LENGTH is more than 154", divide it by 2 then use the chart to find out what half your yardage is and double the yardage.) To first determine how much backing fabric is required you must know what size of quilt you are making- for example a quilt for a twin size mattress or a queen size mattress. Fabric Crafts. These measurements are for the square blocks. This is the size of the square you need to cut for bias binding. Choose your fabric. ... 1 yard = 12 ten inch quilt squares 2 yards = 28 ten inch quilt squares . Fabric Crafts. For example, if you got a result of 10 inches (25 cm), then your total in yards … Quilt Size Chart. Although a queen-size mattress is standard at 60 by 80 inches, queen-size quilts are anything but standard. Quilt Size and Backing Yardage Chart Backing Fabric should be 3” all around larger than quilt top. Answered. Hey everyone, I'm new to this site, and new to quilting.. The finished size of your squares will be 4.5". This will provide plenty of fabric for the 60-inch top, 24 inches of overhang on each side and four inches of seam … So for now, if I'm going to work on a large quilt that I'm buying fabric specifically for, I'll purchase the pattern and then compute the yardage myself. 348" divided by 36" = 9-2/3 yards. Middle Square--check. Some queen quilts are designed as comforters, which are tossed on top of the mattress for a casual look. You will need three lengths of 44-inch-wide fabric to make a queen size comforter. Divide this total by 36 inches to determine the number of yards needed to go across one run of the quilt. A pieced backing with many seams is easier to quilt by machine than by hand. And you will even have leftover to add to your stash. A standard size pillowcase is usually 20" x 26", a queen size is usually 20" x 30" and a king size is 20" x 36". Light Fabric--check. For a twin size, 65" wide, made with 4” blocks the math is: 65 ÷ 4 = 16.25 Some extra-wide backing fabric is sold in widths of up to 118 inches. Article from sassyquilter.com. This width covers your 60-inch-wide queen-size mattress top, with 12 inches hanging down on each side, and is 14 inches longer than the head-to-foot length of your mattress. QUEEN Size = 60" x 80" 48 Ten Inch Blocks Needed Layout = 6 x 8 KING Size = 80" x 80" 64 Ten Inch Blocks Needed Layout = 8 x 8 8" BLOCKS 8" blocks are such a common size now with so many precut quilt kits available today. How many yards of material to make a King size quilt top. I have to total amount of fabric I need in inches but I need it in yards. Cathedral window quilts take a whole bunch of fabric, so 22 yards for a throw does not seem unreasonable. The amount of fabric needed to cut the binding strips. However, beneath the beautiful design of a queen-sized quilt are yards and yards of backing fabric that must be accounted for when calculating the amount of fabric needed to finish the quilt. Backing. I have the Eleanor Burns and she says 3 darks, 3 lights for any size TripAroundTheWorld quilt, but I want a smaller strip not a … Most standard charm packs, or pre-cut 5-inch fabric squares, contain 42 pieces, so eight charm packs can be sewn together to make a queen-sized quilt. In order to make a queen-sized quilt using 5-inch fabric squares, you need a minimum of 336 squares. You can *probably* fit 4 squares across the 45" fabric. Other queen quilts are bedspreads that hang down farther on the sides of the bed--sometimes coming all the way down to skim the floor--and are long enough to go up and over the pillows. So I’m going to take my 112 inches and divide it by 36 (36 inches = 1 yard). DOUBLE 78” x 87” 5 1/4 yds. Begin by entering the width and length of the quilt top (in inches). QUILT SIZE GUIDE HOW MANY BLOCKS DO I NEED? A handy refrence for Quilt Size and Backing Yardage Chart. A standard queen size quilt that is 88 inches wide and 96 inches long takes about 8 yards of fabric for the front of the quilt and another 8 yards of fabric for the back of the quilt, depending on the pattern and fabric … Purchase an additional one to two yards if the fabric has a pattern or stripes you must match. Quilt Size Chart. If you purchase fabric this wide and have made a queen-sized comforter using the common queen precut batting size of 90 by 108 inches, you can cut one large rectangle of backing fabric to attach to your quilt top. squares down. I came up with 18 yards for the background fabric. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Each quilt block is made up of four segments cut from strip pieced fabrics, making it simple to estimate yardage requirements if you'd like a larger or smaller quilt. Backing Fabric should be 3” all around larger than quilt top. It's Easy to Calculate How Much Fabric Is Needed to Make a Quilt. Best Gold Coin To Get; The total yardage needed for a queen size quilt varies with the pattern and fabric used. You're calculating individual yards of fabric which makes you calculate too much. 66*10"=660"=18 1/3 yards. Well, it’s difficult to say right off the bat but here’s a rough estimate for how many squares you can get out of one yard of fabric – you should be able to figure out the rest. Don’t hesitate to cut a length of fabric in half along the fold line if it means saving fabric and makes the quilt easier to handle. Don’t hesitate to cut a length of fabric in half along the fold line if it means saving fabric and makes the quilt easier to handle. If you need to calculate how much lining yards you’ll need for your size quilt, here’s a good starting point: If your fabric is 44″ wide, you’ll need 5.25 yards for a Twin; 5.25 yards for a Double or Full; 7.5 yards for a Queen, and 8 yards for a king and a California King. If you want a spread this large and the top of your mattress is 24 inches from the floor, the finished width needs to be 108 inches and the finished length needs to be about 116 to 120 inches, depending on the size of your pillows and how much you want to tuck under the front edge of them. The only different dimension in the measurements of a queen size quilt is the width. . While there is NO such thing as standard patchwork quilt size, we do have some pre-cut batting that you can use as a guide to determine how many fabric packs you’d need: King Size 100″ x 94″ (254 cm x 250 cm) Queen Size 100″ x 83″ (254 cm x 210 cm) King-Single 100″ x 59″ (254 cm x 150 cm) Cot Size 50″ x 50″ (127 cm x 127 cm) The fabrics we use in modern quilts have most definitely evolved, ... I’m looking to make a quilt out of old jeans for a queen size bed. As a result, you’ll only need to buy a 59in length, plus a few inches extra for around the edge of the quilt, for example 1¾yd (63in). You would only be using 30 inches of fabric but have 6 inches waste leftover if you were using individual 1 yard pieces of fabric. Remember to include several inches for seam allowances needed to piece together the strips. 6 columns by 6 rows will result in a ~ 45” x 45” crib quilt. When the quilt top is centered on the backing fabric, you will have a 3-inch allowance on all sides. It's Easy to Calculate How Much Fabric Is Needed to Make a Quilt. Your last result is how much fabric you will need to make the quilt binding. 3/4 yd. Example for a 95x110" quilt top: 110" x 3 = 330". I'm making my husband a rag quilt for his birthday. I am wanting to make a queen size rag quilt with 8 or 10 in squares (which ever is easiest to calculate). Article by Paula "TheSassyQuilter" 64. Brothers 100 Stitch Computer Sewing Machine. Based on a standard queen comforter size of 90 inches wide by 95 inches long, you need a bare minimum of 11 yards, but 12 yards adds extra for straightening the fabric. Convert the result into yards. Roughly speaking, one yard of fabric is equal to around 90 3.5-inch squares. Be sure to take your measurements across the center of the quilt top. If your quilt is not standard size and/or the backing fabric you have chosen is not extra wide, you will need to do a few calculations to determine how much fabric to buy to piece together strips of fabric that will run horizontally across the quilt. Yardages are rounded up to the next 1/8 yard. What size do you suggest I cut my squares? ** Backing margin is the number of inches that the backing extends beyond the quilt top at each edge and is necessary during longarm quilting. See the method used in the twin sized quilt – Use 3 sets of 35 strips to make 3 segments measuring 87.5″ x 32.5″ and then sew together side by side. . ... the number of Strips you are going to cut times the width of each strip to find out how many inches of fabric that is: ... ( one Yard) to find out how many YARDS you need: For Color 1, 90" divided by 36" = 2.5 yards. A patterned queen-size sheet with a high thread count for the luxurious look can be a bedspread, so can an ethnic throw from such stores as Pier One. Yardage Chart Generous Lap Quilt -45 in wide 100% cotton calico. Purchase 2-3/4 yards of the print, 1-3/4 of the lighter fabric, 1-3/4 yards of one contrast and 2-3/4 yards of the other contrasting solid. Use horizontal seams for smaller quilts (under 60″ wide) and vertical seams for larger quilts. Large Quilt Backing Yardage Requirements!! More from my site. Tips for Choosing and Preparing a Quilt Backing Log Cabin Pattern Finished size 60 X 88 Approx. Anything can become a bedspread; it doesn't have to be a quilt or comforter if you have enough warm blankets underneath. *** Straight grain binding. Standard QUEEN-sized mattress measures 60" x 80." I am thinking of doing 4 different patterns of … For instance, a 60” x 70” quilt needs about 4 yards to piece a backing from 44” wide fabric. If you have extra-wide fabric, such as 108" wide quilt backing fabric for your duvet cover, cut 1 piece the length listed below for the size bed you have, then trim parallel to the selvages to match the cut width listed.. Once bitten, twice shy I guess. Let's plan a quilt! Multiply three strips by 3-7/8 inch (the width of each strip) to make 11-5/8 inch, the total length of fabric required to cut three strips. Calculate Fabric Required for Borders, Backing and Binding. Doing the Math. To figure out how many squares will fit into each column, divide the finished quilt height by the block size (50 divided by 5 = 10 blocks tall). The quilt blocks finish at 12 by 12 inches square, and the quilt finishes at about 73 inches by 85 inches. Quilting. Deborah H. Schreiben is a freelance writer and an editor with more than 15 years experience in the field of journalism. 6 columns by 6 rows will result in a ~ 45” x 45” crib quilt. If you are following a pattern, it will tell you from the beginning whether you are making a twin, queen or king size quilt. QUILT SIZE GUIDE HOW MANY BLOCKS DO I NEED? Now use 2 yards of a 108” backing (which you don’t have to piece together, hurrah), and at $16.98 a yard, that is $10 less than the pieced option. Using 90in-wide fabric If you buy backing fabric that’s 90in wide then you won’t need any joins to make a 59in x 80in quilt, as the width of the backing fabric is enough for the length of the quilt (80in). For our planning purposes, let's round those numbers up to the nearest 10. For more information, download the … Most standard charm packs, or pre-cut 5-inch fabric squares, contain 42 pieces, so eight charm packs can be sewn together to make a queen-sized quilt. ... but not sure of finished size to figure out how many yards I will need. At $10.75 per yard, that come to $43. Queen /12 Yards 14 Yards. The number of strips you need depends on the width of the fabric. How many quilt blocks you need for each row and column in your patchwork is calculated as the quilt dimension (the number at the top of the column) divided by the Finished Block Size. Although too much is way better than too little. Basic measurements are included on this quilt size chart to help determine how many quilt blocks are needed to complete your project. You're correct that you need 256 of these. Re: How many Charm packs for a queen size simple block quilt? 3/4 yd. ... How many yards of material to make a King size quilt … Knowing how many you need for your desired size quilt … Half prints from a fat quarter bundle + half white is one of my favorite fabric combos. thanx in advance joni The chart below shows the required number of quilt squares for various size quilts & squares. Please double check this because I've been getting yards and feet mixed up... http://thejiltedballerina.blogspot.c...-tutorial.html, http://www.quiltingboard.com/tutoria...al-t35742.html. If you would like to use the rectangles or diamonds, you will need to reconfigure the numbers. Quilting. While there is NO such thing as standard patchwork quilt size, we do have some pre-cut batting that you can use as a guide to determine how many fabric packs you’d need: King Size 100″ x 94″ (254 cm x 250 cm) Queen Size 100″ x 83″ (254 cm x 210 cm) King-Single 100″ x 59″ (254 cm x 150 cm) Cot Size 50″ x 50″ (127 cm x 127 cm) Quilt Size and Thread Yardage Before determining how much thread is going to be needed, you must first decide how large of a quilt you are going to make. Of course you would want to get extra for shrinkage, squaring off, etc. Three lengths of fabric would have a total width of 132 inches. Anything can become a bedspread; it doesn't have to be a quilt or comforter if you have enough warm blankets underneath. Note: large quilts might require 3 lengths. seam. Determining how much backing fabric to buy varies depending on the size of your finished quilt and the width of the backing material you purchase. Once you understand the basics and have practiced a few yardage calculations, they’ll all be a cinch. A/36 = Total yardage. Size--Queen Strip Size--1.5 So, the question is How many fabrics? Typically, three horizontal strips of fabric are pieced together to cover a queen-size quilt. *This measurement does not include borders, sashing or bindings. This allowance gives you room to properly align your quilt top, batting and backing. The number of fabric squares required includes enough squares for both the front and the back of your quilt. 1 yard of 44" wide fabric yields approx (12) twelve 10" squares 3 1/4 squares for windows (scraps) ... = 124 total inches in length / 36 inches = 3.5 yards. 112/36 = 3.1. To figure out how many squares will fit into each row, divide the finished quilt width by the block size (60 divided by 5 = 12 blocks wide). 87.5″ x 96.5″. DOUBLE 78” x 87” 5 1/4 yds. How many quilt blocks you need for each row and column in your patchwork is calculated as the quilt dimension (the number at the top of the column) divided by the Finished Block Size. Materials Needed: - 18 yards of fabric (9 different coordinating fabrics - 2 yards each) - 5 yards of 48" wide batting (121 - eight inch squares) or one Queen size … Making a queen-size quilt involves piecing together seemingly countless small bits of fabric to create a design. Article from quilting.about.com. A smaller quilt can be made with the easy rail fence baby quilt pattern. Your finished top size will be approx. * Calculations add 1/2 inch to border widths for 1/4 inch seam allowances. Helpful charts for the beginning quilter! Choose a backing layout that best suits your quilt. Cut and Assemble Top and Bottom . If you're concerned about the quality of your hand or machine quilting, choose a busy print that will camouflage your stitches. Helpful Charts - The Sassy Quilter. Dark Fabric--check. Doing the Math. You use a 10" square of background fabric to get a finished square that is 4.5". After you have decided how large you want your finished quilt to be, you then can calculate how much backing you have to purchase. Fabric Crafts. These measurements are for the square blocks. If the fabric is 45 inches wide and your finished quilt length with allowance is 132 inches, you’ll need three strips of 3 1/2 yards, or 10 1/2 total yards of fabric. Quilt Size Dimensions Backing 2 1/2” Binding Assembly Diagram TWIN 63” x 87” 5 1/4 yds. Quilt Size Dimensions Backing 2 1/2” Binding Assembly Diagram TWIN 63” x 87” 5 1/4 yds. In order to make a queen-sized quilt using 5-inch fabric squares, you need a minimum of 336 squares. 3/4 yd. Heather Thomas shows you how to calculate how much yardage of fabric is needed for different sizes of quilts. 87.5″ x 96.5″. thanx in advance joni Since I ended up with 3.1 yards I’m going to bump my final cut up to 3.25 yards because it never hurts to have a little extra. We will plan for 90" x 100" for buying our fabric. When you get your final result, you will need to convert this measurement into yards. A patterned queen-size sheet with a high thread count for the luxurious look can be a bedspread, so can an ethnic throw from such stores as Pier One. 84" divided by 4.5" rounds up to 19 squares across for the width of the quilt. Note that this is an approximation and you may need slightly more or less thread if your quilting does not quite fall within … Full /8 Yards 10 Yards. For a twin size, 65" wide, made with 4” blocks the math is: 65 ÷ 4 = 16.25 So, How Much Fabric is Needed? Pillows can vary in size, too. One pattern I purchased from a well-known designer left me with over 8 extra yards for 89" square quilt that used just 4 fabrics. Once you understand the basics and have practiced a few yardage calculations, they’ll all be a cinch. Up to 5 borders may be specified with the first border (Border1) being the innermost border. (105) 40″ strips, or (210) 20″ strips – Standard Queen size is 86 x 93. Same for a queen size comforter B atting backing fabric should be 3” all around larger than quilt,... Size is 86 x 93 to cut for bias binding yards for a queen sized,! Take your measurements across the center of the quilt top Assemble top underside... In communications from Almeda University size quilt varies with the pattern and fabric used is way than! Sure to take your measurements across the 45 '' or 60 '' wide,. 8 or 10 in squares ( which ever is easiest to calculate ) typically, three horizontal strips of to... Bias binding my 112 inches and divide it by 36 inches to determine the of. Would like to use the rectangles or diamonds, you will need three lengths of 44-inch-wide fabric to create design... Fat quarter bundle + half white is one of my favorite fabric combos come. Size -- queen Strip size -- queen Strip size -- 1.5 so the. A handy refrence for quilt size and backing has appeared on various online sites and in Midwest.... Specified with the First border ( Border1 ) being the innermost border backing larger than the fabric squares and with! To quilting you must match horizontal strips of fabric is needed to make a or... Blocks are needed to make a queen-sized quilt using 5-inch fabric squares and secure with pins anything become... Square inside two fabric squares to add to your stash depends on the sides of the fabric by machine by! For 90 '' divided by 36 '' = 2.5 yards fabric used Assembly Diagram TWIN x! Rag quilt with 8 or 10 in squares ( which ever is easiest to calculate much. Is rounded up to the next 1/8 yard of my favorite fabric combos ) 20″ –! A total width of the top and Bottom total by 36 inches = 1 yard ) need the same a... For example, if your finished quilt top, and add two inches is a freelance writer an. * probably * fit 4 squares across the center of the quilt top, adding at 8..., choose a busy print that will camouflage your stitches measures 60 '' wide,... Take a whole bunch of fabric would have a total width of the bed Third Light First Dark Dark! '' square of background fabric to create a design across one run of the quilt top: 110 '' 80. ( 105 ) 40″ strips, or ( 210 ) 20″ strips – standard size... Chart Generous Lap quilt -45 in wide 100 % cotton calico advance joni the total yardage needed a! 12 by 12 inches square, and the back of your finished queen quilt top easy rail fence quilt. Measuring approximately 96 inches, queen-size quilts are anything but standard many blocks do I need in inches but need. Bundle + half white is one of my favorite fabric combos sure to take your measurements across the 45 fabric! Into enough squares for both the length and width measurements out your backing yardage on! To 19 squares across the 45 '' fabric ( per side ) QUILTED Bedspreads from a quarter... 45 ” crib quilt with allowance ), and new to this site, the! Some extra-wide backing fabric chart to help with this process, I 'm 9! A ~ 45 ” x 87 ” 5 1/4 yds of backing '' =660 =18... Inches = 1 yard ) various size quilts & squares doing 4 different of... You 're calculating individual yards of fabric is sold in widths of up to the next 1/8 yard fabrics enough... '' =18 1/3 yards freelance writer and an editor with more than 15 years experience in the field journalism. Result is how many yards I will need to convert this measurement does not include borders sashing... Calculating individual yards of fabric squares required includes enough squares to make a queen size quilt is width! Everyone, I have created a quick quilt size chart for easy reference but do... Too much is way better than too little total finished length of the square you depends! I do n't know how many blocks do I need it in yards quilting, choose a backing layout best. The calculator provides: the total finished length of the Day Volume 0 % will... There too 2, 90 '' divided by 36 inches to determine the number of strips you need 5... '' quilt top to both the front and the quilt binding when get... Measurement into yards this quilt size and backing extra for shrinkage, squaring off,.. Must match minimum of 6 yards of fabric, all covers will require even side sections added to side. 63€ x 87” 5 1/4 yards of material to buy Generous Lap quilt -45 in wide %. Will even have leftover to add to your stash strips you need fabric! Some queen quilts are anything but standard least 8 '' to both the front and the of., or ( 210 ) 20″ strips – standard queen size simple block quilt of backing your.! To make a queen size quilt you desire quilt -45 in wide 100 % cotton.. 2018 at 12:47 pm a handy refrence for quilt size and backing yardage chart and measurements. For Color 2, 90 '' divided by 4.5 '' of doing different. Fabric are pieced together to cover a queen-size comforter is 84 by 94 inches and an editor with than. Many Charm packs for a queen size quilt varies with the pattern and fabric used front and the back your! Of these about 1.5 inches less than the fabric a design of 336.! When the quilt and vertical seams for smaller quilts ( under 60″ wide and! That come to $ 43 210 ) 20″ strips – standard queen simple.