[282] Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city. [27][117] On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane). The major metropolitan area has a total surface area of 4,355 kilometers squared (1,681.5 square miles). [190] Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India's GDP. [402] In the Indian Super League, Mumbai City FC represents the city; By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. [245] Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.[407][408]. In Mumbai, more than 60% of the population live in slums, with no running water or electricity and a long commute to work. There are approximately 5,000 businesses and 15,000 single-room factories in Dharavi. ", "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashtra State", "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City", Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, "Mumbai floods: Why India's cities are struggling with extreme rainfall", "Will Mumbai flood this year too? Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes. [40][41] In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). [185][186] In December 2019, IIT Bombay, in partnership with the McKelvey School of Engineering of Washington University in St. Louis, launched the Aerosol and Air Quality Research Facility to study air pollution in Mumbai, among other Indian cities. The higher the growth, the more dynamic society feels. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. [62][63], Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Isle of Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). [365], There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. [204], It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). [228][229][230] In the 2012 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 107 seats, holding power with the support of independent candidates in the MCGM, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 64 seats. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow,[30] generating 6.16% of India's GDP,[31] and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT),[32] and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The Mumbai Police is headed by a police commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. Thriving alongside each other are the Bollywood film industry, some of … It is also known as the financial capital of the country. [212] Mumbai also has two lower courts, the small causes court for civil matters, and the sessions court for criminal cases. [109] The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739. [343], Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. [292] Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,[293] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east. [116], By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation. The rapid population growth is attributed to migration from other regions in the country, with migrants seeking business and employment opportunities. [384] With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking. With almost 23 million residents, Mumbai, India, is the second largest city in the world (only Tokyo, Japan, is larger than Mumbai). Bombay, home to about 18 million people, will over the next two decades see its population grow to about 28.5 million, according to the Washington-based Population Institute, in its annual overview of world population trends. [398] The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team. [201] As of 2008[update], the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities. Navi Mumbai is a metropolitan city in the State of Maharashtra in India. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) covers an area of about 4,355 square km with a population of more than 18 million.2 Hosting the two major ports that handle more than 30% of India’s Mumbai's sex ratio is skewed, and a ward-level analysis of the last Census in 2013 found that 20 of the city's 24 municipal wards had a decline in child sex ratio in the past decade. Its inhabitants include diverse ethnic groups, such as Gujaratis, Marwaris, Sindhis, and people from other Indian states, as well as religious minorities, such as Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Ja… [337] Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime. [150] The Mumbai Metropolitan Region which includes portions of Thane, Palghar and Raigad districts in addition to Greater Mumbai, covers an area of 4,355 km2 (1681.5 sq mi). [97] However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. [274] An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually[275] and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014. [7] Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. Mumbai. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. Slum Population in Mumbai - The financial capital of India known as Mumbai is home to estimated 6.5 million slum people. The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,[284][285] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. [221], In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South. [363], The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. Mumbai is India’s richest city and home to a human population of around 20 million, but it also contains one of the largest protected urban forests in the world. Source: Wikipedia, 2021. Therefore, the population of the city increases per year by 0.05784 Million. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001;[313] that is, 62% of all Mumbaikars live in informal slums. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. The most recent census was conducted in India during 2011, which put Mumbai's Urban Agglomeration at 20,748,395, while the city itself was recorded at 12,478,447. [277], The Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts the Bombay Flying Club and a heliport operated by state-owned Pawan Hans. Mumbai, like most metropolitan areas of India, has a large population of polyglots, and 16 major languages of India are spoken here, including Gujarati, Hindi and Marathi, along with a colloquial form of Hindi called Bambaiya. The estimated male and female populations are 610,060 and 510,487, respectively. [90] Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households. [412], Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. It varies between a dry period extending from October to May and a wet period peaking in June. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution. Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. This is based on the rate of increase in population from that of the previous year, which hovers around 1.475% of the population of India. India Urban Population Currently, 34.5 % of the population of India is urban (471,828,295 people in 2019) [257] Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. [215] The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its Mumbai, India Metro Area Population 1950-2020. Dharavi is the third largest slum in the world home to an estimated 1 million people; Dharavi has a population density of over 277,136/km2, making it one of the most densely populated places on earth (Jacobson, 2007). The metropolitan area has experienced an explosion in growth over the past 20 years, a common occurrence with metropolitan areas in India. [139], The years from 1990 to 2010 saw an increase in violence and terrorism activities. [163] Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. [125] In April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form the Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation. [166], Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification. [286] The water is filtered at Bhandup,[286] which is Asia's largest water filtration plant. [123][124], After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. [368] The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood. "[56] While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions,[57][58] mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature. Mumbai is 4th most populous city in the world and one of the populous urban regions in the world. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[208]. ", "Mumbai breathes 2017's cleanest air; 'good' AQI after 6 months. 2017 – 1.576 Million; 2018 – 1.6392 Million; When you see the population of Navi Mumbai from 2014-18, it has been seen that the population has gone up by 0.2892 Million in the past 5 years. [105], In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. [370] Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. Currently, the world’s population is growing at a rate of approximately 1.07% per year. [171], The average annual temperature is 27 °C (81 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway,[265] are under construction. [400] The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. [42][43] This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay",[44] and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. The metropolitan area has experienced an explosion in growth over the past 20 years, a … Mumbai's urban population is estimated to be over 22 million, and the densely populated city is the largest in India in terms of population, trade activity and business. [372] The schools are affiliated with either of the following boards: The primary education system of the MCGM is the largest urban primary education system in Asia. The percentage of people living in slums is estimated to be as high as 41.3% in Greater Mumbai, meaning that over 9 million people live in these areas. [143][144], Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. [122] While the city was the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the Indian independence movement fostered the Quit India Movement in 1942 and the Royal Indian Navy mutiny in 1946. You can see the full data in the Religion section below. [87][88] In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated. Located on Maharashtra’s coast, Mumbai is India’s most-populous city, and it is one of the largest and most densely populated urban areas in [210] The Mumbai Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. How the city got renamed", "From Bombay to Mumbai: 24 ways the city has changed", "Fruit And Nut: Another 'Bombay' controversy brewing? The powers of the commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the corporation or the standing committee. [234] Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG),[235] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. The total population of Navi Mumbai, according to the provisional reports of census India in 2011, is 1,120,547. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. [276], The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport. The population density of Mumbai is 20,482 people per square kilometre this has quickly grown in the last twenty years. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Post unlockdown: Prison population increases to 31,000 in Maharashtra While at one point during the lockdown, the inmate population had reduced to nearly 24,000 -- a little over its official capacity of 23,217 -- nearly half of the state’s prisons are overcrowded again, some housing inmates more than double their capacities. Population growth in India's urban areas has been dramatic too. [110] The slum is the most literate in the country, with a literacy rate of 69%. The DP claims that the city’s population will marginally increase to 1.27 crore by 2021 before dropping to 1.19 crore in 2031 and finally to 1.06 crore in 2041. Mumbai’s urban population is estimated to be over 22 million, and the densely populated city is one of the largest in India in terms of population, trade activity and business. [224][225] A member of the legislative assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. The Malad-Dahisar region in the west and the Cembur-Govandi region in the east have grown the fastest, growing between 17 and 20% in the last 10 decades. Population: 20,035,455. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. [413] In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship,[414] and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008. [126], The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. [305] Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. 41.3 % of Mumbai’s population lives in slums (World Population Review, 2016). [72][73], Between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas,[74] before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. Osaka (Population: 19,222,665) It is perhaps unsurprising that the majority of the most populous cities in the world are in the two most densely populated countries in the world, China and India. BMC Chief Ajoy Mehta made a presentation on ‘Making Mumbai Work’ at the BRICS summit on Friday. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. Dharavi is the largest slum in Mumbai and the second largest in Asia (after Orangi Town in Pakistan). "[55] Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. Among these are Shanghai and Beijing, with populations of 25 and 22 million respectively, Delhi (27 million), and Mumbai (over 21.5 million). Mumbai's business opportunities attract migrants from all over India. [118] During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton-trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature. Also coming it around 20 million is Beijing, the capital city of China. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York.[309]. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534),[93] St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579),[94] St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580),[95] and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632). Population Size and City Size. Mumbai city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Mumbai Metropolitan Region.The Mumbai city is located in Maharashtra state of India. ", "3 Mumbaikars Who Are Changing The City All By Themselves", "What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank? Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. For every 1,000 boys, there are just 899 girls. The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Koli community—[38] and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. kilometre. [256], The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district. Mumbai, city, capital of Maharashtra state, southwestern India. [264] The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. [410] [206], The municipal commissioner is the chief executive officer and head of the executive arm of the municipal corporation. Louis. [406], In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively. Delhi, in fact, likely passed Mumbai several years ago. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. [356], Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. 2018 – 24 Million; 2019 – 24.5 Million; As can be seen from the figures of the year 2015-19, the population has gone up by 2.5 Million in the past 5 years. It is estimated that one million people live in Dharavi, which spans just 535 acres, has a population density of an incredible 869,565 people per square mile. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million. ] universities in India was played in Mumbai, India metro area of. 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