He was critical of the lack of a reconstruction plan after the fall of Baghdad, feeling the initial offensive operations plans did not take into account the cultural complexities of Iraq. The troops called him Stormin’ Norman, but never in earshot of commanding officers, the name given him for his reputed temper; however, the troops had called him that for different reasons.General (4-star) Norman Schwarzkopf was called such a nickname because of his attitude about winning in combat and wars. [1] [2][Note 3], Commissioned into the Army as an Infantry second lieutenant, Schwarzkopf reported to the United States Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, where he attended the Infantry Officer Basic Course and earned his Parachutist Badge from October 1956 to March 1957. Schwarzkopf was survived by his wife Brenda and their three children. In July 1959, Schwarzkopf was assigned his first overseas assignment; as a staff officer alternating with duties as a platoon leader, liaison officer, and reconnaissance platoon leader[36] with the 6th Infantry Regiment in West Germany. [100] Schwarzkopf's experience in the Middle East allowed him to understand the factors surrounding the conflict, including the allied commanders, with greater ease. While serving as the commander of United States Central Command, he led all coalition forces in the Gulf War. He commanded the US and coalition military forces during the Persian Gulf War. So I think all wars of the future are going to be—and again, God forbid, I hope we don't have any. Schwarzkopf's speaking fees topped $60,000 per public appearance. [62], In July 1978, Schwarzkopf became deputy director of plans at the U.S. Pacific Command in Hawaii. [66][67] He immediately established an extremely rigorous training regimen and became well known among the troops of the command for his strict training and aggressive personality. [94][95] While planning, Schwarzkopf remained in frequent contact with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell (both Vietnam veterans) concerning Schwarzkopf's plans for the offensive. He was later questioned about running for political office, but, considering himself an independent, expressed little interest in doing so. [76], In November 1988, Schwarzkopf was named commander of United States Central Command (CENTCOM), succeeding General George B. Crist. The military leader who earned the nickname Stormin' Norman was 78 years old. James Meredith is a civil rights activist who became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi in 1962. In the meantime, diplomatic solutions began to break down, and the deadline established by the United Nations Security Council, January 15, 1991, passed without a solution. [11][12], Norman Schwarzkopf was described by childhood friends as active and assertive, protective of his sisters and a skilled athlete. Nicknamed "Stormin' Norman," General Norman Schwarzkopf was known for his fiery temper and his keen strategic mind. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was the Commander of the U.S. Central Command that delivered a decisive victory over Saddam Hussein's Iraq in the first Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm.In a little over 7 months he liberated Kuwait as mandated by U.N. resolution 678. His father worked on the infamous 1932 kidnapping case of Charles Lindbergh's son and later served in World War II. [89] On December 29, 1990, he received a warning order from The Pentagon to be ready to attack into Iraq and Kuwait by January 17. [31][32] He graduated 43rd of 480 in the class of 1956 with a Bachelor of Engineering degree. [20] The senior Schwarzkopf visited Italy, Heidelberg, Frankfurt,[21] and Berlin, Germany during his military duties, and the younger Schwarzkopf accompanied him. Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. 20. General Schwarzkopf retired from active duty in 1991 and wrote an autobiography entitled, “It Doesn't Take A Hero,” which published in 1992. He was reportedly killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett, who later burnished the legend of the Wild West outlaw. John P. Abizaid 2. [19][39] He was promoted to major shortly after arriving in Vietnam. Rising through the ranks after the Vietnam war, he later commanded the 24th Mechanized Infantry Division and was one of the commanders of the Invasion of Grenada in 1983. In 1991, Schwarzkopf led Operation Desert Storm, the U.S. military effort to liberate Kuwait. The seemingly no-nonsense Desert Storm commander's reputed temper with aides and subordinates supposedly earned him that rough-and-ready moniker. [72] As a part of his duties during the posting, he sat in on arms reduction talks with leaders from the Soviet Union. His frequent short temper with subordinates was well known in his command. Despite his nickname of ‘Stormin’ Norman’, he planned military campaigns meticulously. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Among the many honors he received was the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002. General Schwarzkopf’s return to Vietnam more than 20 years after his second combat tour brought him closure—and a mysterious threat of bloodshed. [113] He ordered his forces to destroy as much Iraqi armor and equipment as possible to ensure the weakening of Iraq's offensive capability in the near term. "[138] The later accomplishments of General Tommy Franks during Operation Enduring Freedom were compared favorably with those of Schwartzkopf. His connection with the Persian Gulf region began at an early age. Assuming command of United States Central Command in 1988, Schwarzkopf was called on to respond to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990 by the forces of Ba'athist Iraq under Saddam Hussein. Schwarzkopf was more concerned with the effects of the Iran–Iraq War on the stability of the region than of an external threat posed by the Soviet Union.[78]. [59] Schwarzkopf favored the intense press surrounding the Gulf War conflict, feeling that blocking the news media, as had been done in Grenada, would contribute to affect public perception of the war in the United States negatively. [112][115][116] With this in place, he then began the process of overseeing U.S. troops returning from the conflict. [139] However, in an analysis of the effects of the Gulf War, several historians, including Spencer C. Tucker, contended that Schwarzkopf's ceasefire agreement allowed Iraq to continue to fly armed helicopters, which allowed it to later conduct operations against its Shia Arab and Kurdish populations. [45] His promotion ceremony occurred at Fort Lewis shortly after he had relinquished command of the brigade. In January 1952, Schwarzkopf's birth certificate was amended to make his name "H. Norman Schwarzkopf." Susan Y. Desjardins 18. [134][135], The quick and decisive results of the Gulf War were attributed to Schwarzkopf's leadership. Downing 19. Schwarzkopf graduated from West Point and fought in the Vietnam War. A hard-driving military commander with a strong temper, Schwarzkopf was considered an exceptional leader by many biographers and was noted for his abilities as a military diplomat and in dealing with the press. Nickname: Stormin' Norman Noted For: U.S. Army general. He was profiled by the Associated Press, the Washington Post, and Newsday, People, as well as praised in a Random House publication on the war, Triumph in the Desert. The operation was plagued by logistical difficulties, exacerbated by poor communication and lack of co-operation between the branches of the United States military. He also worked to minimize the culture clash among foreigners in sharia-dominated Saudi Arabia, such as the high visibility of women in military roles. He became an instant national celebrity and the source of great curiosity by the general public. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! [16] As a 10-year-old cadet at Bordentown Military Institute, near Trenton, he posed for his official photograph wearing a stern expression because, as he said afterwards, "Some day when I become a general, I want people to know that I'm serious. He was a "soldier's general". Norman Schwarzkopf, in full H. Norman Schwarzkopf, original name Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr., (born August 22, 1934, Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.—died December 27, 2012, Tampa, Florida), U.S. Army officer who commanded Operation Desert Storm, the American-led military action that liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation during the Persian Gulf War (1991). Plagued by a cracked vertebra, he underwent back surgery at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in 1971. He later said that the troops were initially demoralized and in poor condition, racked with rampant drug use and disciplinary problems as well as a lack of support from home. [28][29] Schwarzkopf then attended the United States Military Academy, where he played football, wrestled, sang and conducted the West Point Chapel choir. He initially endorsed an invasion after Colin Powell's presentation to the United Nations on February 6, 2003. [71], He flew into St. George's on the second day of the operation. Peter de la Billière, commander of the British contingent, and Michel Roquejeoffre, commander of the French contingent, also co-operated well with Schwarzkopf. [140], In a 2012 book, historian Thomas E. Ricks wrote Schwarzkopf's lack of experience with politics were disadvantageous to his conduct of the war. He was then called to an emergency meeting with US President George H. W. Bush, where his Internal Look '90 strategic plans were made the basis of a potential counteroffensive plan. General Schwarzkopf was a second-generation West Point graduate. Schwarzkopf was highly decorated in Vietnam and was awarded three Silver Stars, two Purple Hearts, and the Legion of Merit. He pushed for offensive combat over defensive operations in the Gulf War. Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (/ˈʃwɔːrtskɒf/; August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was a United States Army general. [7] The senior Schwarzkopf later became the founding Superintendent of the New Jersey State Police, where he worked as a lead investigator on the 1932 Lindbergh baby kidnapping case. Bush remembered him as "a true American patriot and one of the great military leaders of his generation," adding "Schwarzkopf, to me, epitomized the 'duty, service, country' creed that has defended our freedom and seen this great nation through our most trying international crises. His dealings with the press were thus frequent and very personal, and he conducted regular briefings for journalists. It really should be part of the overall campaign plan," he said, according to the Associated Press. John R. Allen, USMC 3. [130], He was known to be extremely critical of staff officers who were unprepared, but was even more contentious with other generals who he felt were not aggressive enough. [145] Schwarzkopf's strategy was to control the message being sent and so he ordered media on the battlefield to be escorted at all times. [19] In July 1960, Schwarzkopf was assigned as aide-de-camp to Brigadier General Charles Johnson, who commanded the Berlin Brigade in West Berlin. [121] He felt it was a mistake to send U.S. Army Reserve troops into the country without adequate training. After the Vietnam War ended, Schwarzkopf stayed in the military and continued to rise up the ranks. Scott C. Black 5. On November 7, 1994, Schwarzkopf won $14,000 for the Boggy Creek Gang on Celebrity Jeopardy! Schwarzkopf then accompanied Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney to meet with Saudi King Fahd to convince him to allow U.S. troops into Saudi Arabia to counter the Iraqi military. [86] By August 13, the news media began to closely cover Schwarzkopf, who had been named to lead the operation.[1]. W.H. [68], On October 25, 1983, Schwarzkopf was appointed to the command group for the Invasion of Grenada. [132] Army Chief of Staff Carl E. Vuono, a lifelong friend of Schwarzkopf, described him as "competent, compassionate, egotistical, loyal, opinionated, funny, emotional, sensitive to any slight. Ralph E. Eberhar… Schwarzkopf supported a number of charities, including children's organizations. Schwarzkopf was not vocal about his political opinions during his military career. Schwarzkopf died on December 27, 2012, at his home in Tampa, Florida. They were introduced at a West Point football game in 1967 and married the next year. Peter W. Chiarelli 12. [88] By August 20, 20,000 U.S. troops were in Saudi Arabia, with another 80,000 preparing to deploy, and a further 40,000 reserves tapped to augment them. [18] Schwarzkopf developed a lifelong interest in Middle Eastern culture. "The Bear" — Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., United States Army general (the nickname he preferred over "Stormin' Norman") "The Bearded Man" — Frank Messervy, British Army general (because he tended not to shave in battle) "Beauty" — Harold M. Martin, U.S. Navy admiral "Benny" — Raymond H. Bass, World War II U.S. Navy submarine commander [57] He underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Hospital shortly after his return from Vietnam to repair longstanding back problems exacerbated by parachute jumps. [17] In Iran, Norman learned shooting, horseback riding, and hunting. In retirement, Schwarzkopf served as a military analyst for NBC. [44], After ten months of combat duty, Schwarzkopf was pulled from the front by MACV and reassigned as senior staff adviser for civil affairs to the ARVN Airborne Division. He was on several occasions encouraged to run for United States Senate or President of the United States as a member of the Republican Party, but showed no interest. He became an instantly recognisable figure during the … Commanded the U.S. and allied forces in the Persian Gulf War (1991). The good relationship between the allied commanders allowed their forces to co-operate effectively during the operation. "[2][51], During this second tour, Schwarzkopf noted two incidents that haunted him. https://www.biography.com/military-figure/norman-schwarzkopf. [30][73][122][136] Historian Rick Atkinson considered Schwarzkopf "the most theatrical American in uniform since Douglas MacArthur. Holmes was the alias of one of America's first serial killers. [121] Schwarzkopf indicated a desire to retire from the military in mid-1991. [129] Like German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and General George S. Patton, Schwarzkopf highly regarded decisiveness and valued determination among his commanders. [122] He retired from the military in August 1991, moving to Tampa, Florida. [97], By then, Schwarzkopf commanded an international army of 750,000,[59] comprising 500,000 US troops and 250,000 troops from other nations, as well as thousands of main battle tanks, combat aircraft and six carrier battle groups. IN 1991 THE FACE OF U.S. MILITARY POWER WAS GENERAL NORMAN SCHWARZKOPF. [55], Disgruntled by the treatment of Vietnam veterans in the United States after the war, Schwarzkopf considered leaving the military but ultimately decided to stay in the hope of fixing some of the problems encountered by the military during the war. [30] His rehabilitation of the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry stressed survival as well as offense. [79] One week after the end of the exercises, Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. While serving as Commander-in-Chief, United States Central Command, he led all coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War. Norman Schwarzkopf in 1991. During the war, he earned several honors for his service there, including three Silver Stars, a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart. Trudy Clark 14. Commander in Gulf War, Dies at 78", "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement", "Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf Biography Photo", "1993 Salute to Excellence, Stars of today and tomorrow meet in Glacier", United States Army Center for Military History, Barbara Walters Interview with General Schwarzkopf, Coalition commander in the Persian Gulf War, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, USA, Biography and Interview on American Academy of Achievement, Commander-in-Chief of United States Central Command, Commanders of United States Central Command, National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Norman_Schwarzkopf_Jr.&oldid=996154878, United States Army personnel of the Gulf War, United States Army personnel of the Vietnam War, Honorary Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath, Recipients of the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, Recipients of the Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal, Recipients of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Recipients of the Defense Superior Service Medal, Recipients of the Distinguished Flying Cross (United States), Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (US Army), Recipients of the Gallantry Cross (Vietnam), Recipients of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Valley Forge Military Academy and College alumni, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, United States Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, Schwarzkopf Elementary School, named after him in, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 21:18. 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